The year 1990 was a turning point in overcoming the communist heritage and shaping democracy in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. That year brought the first fully free parliamentary, presidential and local government elections in most of the CEE countries. It was also in 1990 that the two German states were reunited, which had (still has) consequences not only for the Germans themselves, but also for their eastern neighbours, Poles, Czechs and Slovaks (then: Czechoslovakia), who had to re-establish their relations with their old/new neighbour - with whom they also had an unsettled history dating back to World War II. The year 1990 was also the beginning of a new era for the Baltic States, such as Lithuania, which was the first country of that region to declare its independence after 50 years of Soviet rule.

In an attempt to present the circumstances surrounding the historical breakthrough that led to the collapse of the communist system and the start of democratic changes in Central and Eastern Europe, the Krzyżowa Foundation has prepared a series of online lectures, to participate in which we would like to cordially invite all interested.

  • 23 March, 6:00 pm - Dr Łukasz Kamiński, The Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe

  • 31 March, 6:00 pm - Prof. Antoni Dudek, First years of free Poland (1989-1993)

  • 8 April, 6:00 pm - Prof. Pierre-Frédéric Weber, The 1989/1990 breakthrough in the Eastern Bloc countries from the perspective of Paris and Bonn


Detailed information on the lectures will be posted shortly.

Public entry free of charge.


The lectures are organised within the framework of the "1990 / Year One. The democratic transformation in former Eastern Bloc countries" project, which aims to understand and provide knowledge about changes that took place in 1990 in Poland, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Lithuania and other Baltic countries.

The project partners of the Krzyżowa Foundation for Mutual Understanding in Europe are: Paweł Włodkowic Institute (Poland), Stiftung Adam von Trott, Imshausen e.V. (Germany), Post Bellum (Czech Republic) and Anyksciu svietimo pagalbos tarnyba (Lithuania).

The project is implemented within the framework of the Europe for Citizens Programme - Strand 1. European Remembrance  programme and is co-financed by the European Commission.





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